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Compare and Contrast Science (Grade 10)

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Compare and Contrast Science

1. 
The Fujita Scale
Over two decades ago, meteorologist Tetsuya “Ted” Fujita changed the way the world perceived and understood tornadoes. Fujita, born in Japan in 1920, spent all of his adult life studying and researching thunderstorms, tornadoes and hurricanes. His experimentation led to the development of the now familiar Fujita scale, designed to measure the intensity of a tornado.

The scale is formulated based on the storm’s area of damage, and wind speed. For example in a F0 tornado, winds only reach 72 miles an hour and damage is minor,. A F5 features winds going as high as 319 miles an hour, and destructive is massive. The Fujita scale is divided into six categories: F0 (Gale); F1 (Weak); F3 (Severe); F4 (Devastating) and F5 (Incredible).

Over the years, Fujita, as well as other meteorologists have discovered flaws in the scale. In 2007, the scale was revised and implemented throughout the nation. Even though Fujita passed away in 1998, his impact on the field of tornado research is endless.

The New NESIS

In 2007, two scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced a new method of measuring or rating snowstorms. It is known as the Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale, or NESIS. The scale is used to rate the blizzards that strike the northeastern portion of the country.

NESIS is based on five levels of intensity. They range from 1 (Notable), 2 (Significant), and 3 (Major), to 4 (Crippling) and 5 (Extreme). The scale is not used as a warning system, but instead measures and assesses the impact of a storm after it has already ended. It is predicated upon the inches of snow, the land area affected, and the number of people affected. Eventually, the experts at NOAA believe NESIS will extend to other regions within the country that regularly experience massive winter storms.
A. 
What factor do these two viewpoints have in common?
  1. Weather can be incredibly destructive.
  2. Better warning systems have saved lives.
  3. The impact of a storm on people must be factored in.
  4. Different regions of the country experience different weather problems.
B. 
What information does the author of Passage 1 include that the author of Passage 2 leaves out?
  1. The different levels involved in the scales.
  2. The exact year the scale was created.
  3. The reason why some areas require different scales.
  4. The history of the how the scale was originally invented.
C. 
What is one thing both passages have in common?
  1. Both of them describe the inventor of the scales.
  2. Both of them list the five levels and their specific names.
  3. Both of them cover only a limited portion of the country.
  4. Both of them include details about how the scales have changed over time.
D. 
The primary purpose of NESIS is to provide the public with a reliable warning system.
  1. True
  2. False
E. 
The equivalent of an “incredible” rating on a tornado is a(n)                            on NESIS.
2. 
Pedal or Motor

With the general population becoming more and more aware of the environment and trying to adopt "greener" habits, it is no surprise that people are questioning the use of their cars. From the price of gas to parking fees, from expensive repairs to concerns about air pollution, there is an ongoing effort to find better options.

Many people are turning to bicycles. Riding a bike has proved good for the body, the planet and the wallet. According to a recent study, low-effort ride (10mph) burns far more calories than a relaxed afternoon stroll (2mph). A bike won't emit any pollutants or deplete non-renewable resources. In addition, whereas the asphalt, roadway tars and other chemicals used to make parking lots damages the earth, a bike rack is no more a nuisance than a mailbox. A bike requires minimal upkeep and those repairs that are needed are largely doable by the average rider and a few simple tools. Finally, with the growing amount of bike trails and charity rides, there is even a growing social aspect to bikes that isn't available to those in encased in a car.

There are people who prefer something faster than the old-fashioned bicycle. A growing number are choosing electric scooters. These vehicles are less draining physically, but still won't harshly affect the environment. Repairs are not common, but when they are needed, it commonly requires a licensed mechanic or other expert. A scooter may require a parking spot instead of a bike rack, but it doesn't require the purchase of an expensive bike lock. For the most part, electric scooters require a state issued driver's license to operate.
A. 
What two things is this passage comparing?
  1. The amount of calories burned using different types of vehicles.
  2. The various ways people are trying to live “greener” lifestyles.
  3. The pros and cons of owning and using scooters and bicycles.
  4. The types of repairs required by the average bicycle and scooter.
B. 
Which statement about electric scooters is the most accurate?
  1. They need more repairs than bicycles do.
  2. They have stricter requirements in place to ride them.
  3. They often help people interact on a social level.
  4. They must be kept in legally marked parking spots.
C. 
What would be a primary reason a person would purchase a scooter instead of a bicycle?
  1. To save a great deal of money
  2. To have a smaller impact on the environment
  3. To learn how to make the necessary repairs
  4. To travel faster and expend less physical energy
D. 
A growing number of people are searching for a workable replacement for their dependence on automobiles.
  1. True
  2. False
E. 
Bike riders are often offered the chance to socialize through                                                           .

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