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Strong Nuclear Force (Grades 11-12)

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Strong Nuclear Force

Instructions: Read each question carefully. For any questions involving calculations, you must show all your process.

In 1932, James Chadwick discovered the electrically-neutral particle called the neutron, discovering that its mass was nearly the same as the proton. Together with the information about the proton discovered by Rutherford 14 years earlier, existence of the neutron helped scientists to understand what about the nucleus?
  1. They learned what held the nucleus together.
  2. They learned the existence of quarks.
  3. They learned that there were individual protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
  4. They learned why the mass of an element was greater than the sum of its protons.
Physicists know that something holds the nucleus of an atom together called a strong nuclear force. Explain the primary evidence for the existence of a strong nuclear force.

The strong nuclear force has several properties that determine its effect on atomic particles including all of the following EXCEPT                                                                          
  1. It is only attractive, never repulsive.
  2. It acts on both charged and neutral particles.
  3. It acts on protons, neutrons , and electrons to hold the nucleus together.
  4. It is a short range force.
The strong nuclear force attracts all protons and neutrons, considered                       , to all the other nearby                       .
Compare and contrast a strong nuclear force to an electromagnetic force.

The best way to explain the contribution Einstein's mass-energy equivalence theory made to the study of nuclear physics is that it
  1. relates energy, mass, and the speed of light.
  2. shows scientists how mass can be converted into pure energy.
  3. describes how much mass is associated with a given amount of energy and how much energy it takes to create a given amount of mass.
  4. showed how all matter had a rest energy.
Nuclear fusion creates energy in the sun. During this process, hydrogen atoms combine to create helium. The mass of the helium created is less than the mass of the hydrogen from which it was made. The lost mass is converted to radiant energy. The sun loses [math]4.3xx10^9kg[/math] of mass every second. How much energy is released in one second?

**Remember, [math]E=mc^2[/math], where c, the speed of light, is equal to [math]3xx10^8m/sec[/math], and [math]m[/math] is the mass in [math]kg[/math].

Using Einstein's mass-energy equation, determine the difference in rest energy between a neutron and a proton.

Given: [math]m_n=1.675xx10^-27kg[/math]
Given: [math]m_p=1.673xx10^-27kg[/math]
Given: [math]"Speed of light " c=3xx10^8m/s[/math]

The energy that must be supplied to separate a nucleus into its component protons and neutrons is called                                                                  . It provides the energy to cause a                                                                   .
  1. nuclear energy; fission reaction
  2. binding energy; nuclear reaction
  3. binding energy; fission reaction
  4. nuclear fission; strong force
The balance of forces in the nucleus depends strongly upon the number of                . Without them, the effect of the strong nuclear force is not sufficient to hold the nucleus of an atom together.
  1. protons
  2. nucleons
  3. electrons
  4. neutrons
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