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Genomes Answer Key

The genome of domesticated dogs contains an insulin-like growth factor called IGF-1. This factor plays a role in determining the size the dog will be. Which statement about IGF-1 is true?
  1. Large dogs do not produce IGF-1.
  2. Small dogs do not produce IGF-1.
  3. Large dogs have an active allele for IGF-1, and small dogs have a less active allele.
  4. Small dogs lack the IGF-1 allele, and large dogs possess it.
A noncoding DNA strand of 10 base pairs was cut three different ways. The first way resulted in fragments of TG, ATG, CCTAC. The second way produced AT, GCC, and TACTG fragments. The third way produced CTG, CTA, and ATGC fragments. What is the correct sequence of the original piece of DNA?
If the universal adapter sequence is GTCATTGCTTGCAATGTT, which universal primer should be used for DNA sequencing?
Which will NOT be included in an open reading frame?
  1. start codon
  2. stop codon
  3. coding regions of genes
  4. regulatory sequences
Which description is most likely of the genome of a free-living prokaryote?
  1. a genome that is 300 million bp long with over 50 percent repetitive DNA and many introns
  2. a genome that is 16,000 bp long and arranged in a circle
  3. a genome that is 3 million bp long and arranged in a single chromosome with little repetitive DNA
  4. a genome that is 3 million bp long and arranged in a linear chromosome with many introns
Which technique or tool is the best way to determine the minimal genome of a free-living bacterium?
  1. metagenomics
  2. haplotype mapping
  3. bacterial artificial chromosomes
  4. selective inactivation of genes
Which statement about genomes is true?
  1. Most genes found in the genomes of complex organisms are not required for survival.
  2. As complexity increases, the number of genes increases more than the size of the genome.
  3. Prokaryotes develop more chromosomes as they become more complex.
  4. Compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells allows these organisms to have fewer genes than prokaryotes do.
A DNA transposon found in the dog hookworm is able to move to the mammalian host without using an RNA intermediate.
In eukaryotic genomes, the highly repetitive sequences called short tandem repeats (STRs) are not transcribed.
What are some general characteristics of the human genome, in particular number of base pairs, length of genes, and distribution of those genes?
  • The human genome has about 3.2 million base pairs. About 1.2 million of those make up the regions that code for proteins. The average gene contains 27,000 base pairs, but size varies greatly. Half of the genome is made up of transposons and other highly repetitive sequences. The genes are not evenly distributed throughout the genome. The Y chromosome has the fewest number of genes, and chromosome 1 has the most.

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