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RNA and Protein Synthesis

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RNA and Protein Synthesis Answer Key

What is the sugar indicated by the number 2 in the diagram?
  1. ribose
  2. deoxyribose
  3. glucose
  4. cellulose
What describes the synthesis of RNA with a template of DNA?
  1. transcription
  2. translation
  3. photosynthesis
  4. respiration
Which bases of DNA hydrogen bond to which bases of RNA?
  • A bonds with U.
    T bonds with A.
    G bonds with C.
    C bonds with G.
List key differences between the structure of RNA and the structure of DNA.
  • DNA- double helix (2 strands)
    has base pairs ATCG
    deoxyribose sugar

    RNA- single strand
    has base pairs AUCG
    ribose sugar
Which kind of RNA is produced during transcripton in a cell's nucleus?
  1. mRNA
  2. rRNA
  3. tRNA
If a strand of mRNA is AUAGCCUU, then what is the corresponding anticodon?
What is the relationship between the DNA strand and the codon molecule?
  • The codon molecule is a piece of mRNA that enters the nucleus and transcribes the sequence of nitrogen bases from the DNA strand. The DNA serves as the blueprint for the proteins that will be created through the process of protein synthesis. The mRNA then leaves the nucleus and travels to the ribosomes where other forms of RNA translate the code.
The site at which transcription begins on the DNA strand is called the promoter site.
During elongation, RNA polymerase synthesizes the RNA transcription factors.
There are four nitrogen bases and three bases in each codon. This make a possible 64 base combinations. If there are only 20 known amino acids, why are there so many possible combinations? Support your answer with evidence.
  • There are 20 known amino acids, but 64 possible base combinations. This means that there has to be more than one codon for each amino acid. For example, the amino acid leucine can be coded for by the codon CUU. It can also be coded for by CUC, CUA, and CUG. All of these base combinations code for the same amino acid.

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