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Astronomy Test

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Astronomy Test Answer Key

Who proposed the heliocentric model of the solar system?
  1. Copernicus
  2. Kepler
  3. Ptolemy
  4. Galileo
What is the most abundant element in the early solar system and the entire universe?
  1. Iron
  2. Ammonia
  3. Hydrogen
  4. Oxygen
Based on radiometric dating, the solar system formed about how many years ago?
  1. Between 6,000 and 10,000 years
  2. Between 1 and 2 million years
  3. Between 100 and 200 million years
  4. Between 4 and 5 billion years
One complete revolution of Earth around the Sun is called a
  1. day.
  2. night.
  3. month.
  4. year.
What is represented by the diagram below?
Neap Tide
  1. neap tide
  2. spring tide
  3. solar eclipse
  4. lunar eclipse
Eccentricity refers to
  1. the wobble of Earth as it spins.
  2. the shift in the direction of the axis spin.
  3. the cycles of ice ages and warming periods.
  4. the elliptical shape of Earth's orbit.
A very slow directional shift of Earth's axis that requires 26,000 years to complete is called
  1. precession.
  2. retrograde motion.
  3. occultation.
  4. perturbation.
Write the letter from the diagram of the Sun that best matches each word.
Diagram - Sun Without Text Labels
C Convection Zone
A Inner Core
E Photosphere
G Corona
F Chromosphere
B Radiative Zone
D Subsurface Flows
Which part of the comet is on the opposite side of the comet from the Sun?
  1. coma
  2. tail
  3. nucleus
  4. head
Galileo’s observation of the motion of sunspots provided evidence for which of the following?
  1. the rotation of the Sun
  2. the Sun’s chemical composition
  3. the layered structure of the Sun
  4. the shape of Earth’s orbit around the Sun
The Sun contains about                 of the mass in our solar system.
  1. 25%
  2. 50%
  3. 87%
  4. 99%
Which gas gives the planets shown below their color?
Planet Neptune - SmallPlanet Uranus - Small
  1. nitrogen
  2. methane
  3. ammonia
  4. carbon dioxide
These large and sudden eruptions of electromagnetic radiation from the Sun can disrupt telecommunications on Earth.
  1. coronal holes
  2. solar flares
  3. solar winds
  4. sunspots
One day on Mercury is equal to about 59 Earth days. Which statement best explains this phenomena?
  1. Mercury rotates slower than Earth.
  2. Mercury revolves faster than Earth.
  3. Earth is farther from the Sun than Mercury.
  4. Earth has a lower orbital eccentricity than Mercury.
Which statement correctly compares the atmospheres of the Jovian planets and Earth?
  1. They consist mostly of helium and hydrogen like Earth's earliest atmosphere.
  2. They consist mostly of nitrogen and oxygen like Earth's present day atmosphere.
  3. Unlike Earth, the Jovian planets have no atmospheres.
  4. The Jovian planets have atmospheres, but they are much thinner than Earth's atmosphere.
Use the diagram of the Moon to answer the question.
Map of the Moon
Which geological event most likely formed Mare Vaporum?
  1. tectonic uplift
  2. impact cratering
  3. recent volcanic activity
  4. ancient volcanic activity
Earth is kept in orbit around the Sun by
  1. its speed and distance from the Sun.
  2. inertia and gravity.
  3. its shape and size.
  4. electricity and magnetism.
This inner planet has ice caps of [math]CO_2[/math], evidence of liquid water, and dried coastlines.
  1. Earth
  2. Mars
  3. Jupiter
  4. Mercury
  5. Venus
Use the diagram to write the letter that best represents each class of stars.
H-R Diagram With Letters - Small

B Giants

A Supergiants

E White Dwarfs

D or C Main Sequence
A group of thousands of mostly older stars, gathered in a relatively small area, would most likely be which of the following?
  1. Open Cluster
  2. Globular Cluster
  3. Molecular Cloud
  4. Planetary Nebula
Which set of terms is arranged from smallest to largest?
  1. galaxy, star, cluster, supercluster
  2. star, supercluster, cluster, galaxy
  3. galaxy, supercluster, star, cluster
  4. star, galaxy, cluster, supercluster
The diagram shows
Hubble Sequence #2
  1. the evolutionary sequence of stars.
  2. the evolutionary sequence of galaxies.
  3. the morphological classification of stars.
  4. the morphological classification of galaxies.
Collisions between galaxies are likely                                    and result in                                   .
  1. common; new star formation
  2. uncommon; new star formation
  3. common; frequent star collisions
  4. uncommon; frequent star collisions
Extremely distant, bright, energetic object located in the core of some active galaxies.
  1. pulsar
  2. quasar
  3. black hole
  4. white dwarf
Explain the relationship between the Doppler effect and what astronomers call "redshift" and "blueshift". Be sure to explain what we can learn about objects by observing the Doppler effect and where the terms red shift and blue shift come from.
  • If the apparent frequency of EM waves is higher than the actual frequency, the object is moving closer relative to earth. If the apparent frequency is lower than the actual frequency, the object is moving away. It is called red shift and blue shift because in visible light, an object moving away would look more red, while an object moving toward the observer would look more blue due to the lower and higher frequencies respectively.

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