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## Astronomy Test

1.
Who proposed the heliocentric model of the solar system?
1. Copernicus
2. Kepler
3. Ptolemy
4. Galileo
2.
What is the most abundant element in the early solar system and the entire universe?
1. Iron
2. Ammonia
3. Hydrogen
4. Oxygen
3.
Based on radiometric dating, the solar system formed about how many years ago?
1. Between 6,000 and 10,000 years
2. Between 1 and 2 million years
3. Between 100 and 200 million years
4. Between 4 and 5 billion years
4.
One complete revolution of Earth around the Sun is called a
1. day.
2. night.
3. month.
4. year.
5.
What is represented by the diagram below?
1. neap tide
2. spring tide
3. solar eclipse
4. lunar eclipse
6.
Eccentricity refers to
1. the wobble of Earth as it spins.
2. the shift in the direction of the axis spin.
3. the cycles of ice ages and warming periods.
4. the elliptical shape of Earth's orbit.
7.
A very slow directional shift of Earth's axis that requires 26,000 years to complete is called
1. precession.
3. occultation.
4. perturbation.
8.
Write the letter from the diagram of the Sun that best matches each word.

Convection Zone
Inner Core
Photosphere
Corona
Chromosphere
Subsurface Flows
9.
Which part of the comet is on the opposite side of the comet from the Sun?
1. coma
2. tail
3. nucleus
10.
Galileo’s observation of the motion of sunspots provided evidence for which of the following?
1. the rotation of the Sun
2. the Sun’s chemical composition
3. the layered structure of the Sun
4. the shape of Earth’s orbit around the Sun
11.
The Sun contains about                 of the mass in our solar system.
1. 25%
2. 50%
3. 87%
4. 99%
12.
Which gas gives the planets shown below their color?
1. nitrogen
2. methane
3. ammonia
4. carbon dioxide
13.
These large and sudden eruptions of electromagnetic radiation from the Sun can disrupt telecommunications on Earth.
1. coronal holes
2. solar flares
3. solar winds
4. sunspots
14.
One day on Mercury is equal to about 59 Earth days. Which statement best explains this phenomena?
1. Mercury rotates slower than Earth.
2. Mercury revolves faster than Earth.
3. Earth is farther from the Sun than Mercury.
4. Earth has a lower orbital eccentricity than Mercury.
15.
Which statement correctly compares the atmospheres of the Jovian planets and Earth?
1. They consist mostly of helium and hydrogen like Earth's earliest atmosphere.
2. They consist mostly of nitrogen and oxygen like Earth's present day atmosphere.
3. Unlike Earth, the Jovian planets have no atmospheres.
4. The Jovian planets have atmospheres, but they are much thinner than Earth's atmosphere.
16.
Use the diagram of the Moon to answer the question.

Which geological event most likely formed Mare Vaporum?
1. tectonic uplift
2. impact cratering
3. recent volcanic activity
4. ancient volcanic activity
17.
Earth is kept in orbit around the Sun by
1. its speed and distance from the Sun.
2. inertia and gravity.
3. its shape and size.
4. electricity and magnetism.
18.
This inner planet has ice caps of $CO_2$, evidence of liquid water, and dried coastlines.
1. Earth
2. Mars
3. Jupiter
4. Mercury
5. Venus
19.
Use the diagram to write the letter that best represents each class of stars.

Giants

Supergiants

White Dwarfs

Main Sequence
20.
A group of thousands of mostly older stars, gathered in a relatively small area, would most likely be which of the following?
1. Open Cluster
2. Globular Cluster
3. Molecular Cloud
4. Planetary Nebula
21.
Which set of terms is arranged from smallest to largest?
1. galaxy, star, cluster, supercluster
2. star, supercluster, cluster, galaxy
3. galaxy, supercluster, star, cluster
4. star, galaxy, cluster, supercluster
22.
The diagram shows
1. the evolutionary sequence of stars.
2. the evolutionary sequence of galaxies.
3. the morphological classification of stars.
4. the morphological classification of galaxies.
23.
Collisions between galaxies are likely                                    and result in                                   .
1. common; new star formation
2. uncommon; new star formation
3. common; frequent star collisions
4. uncommon; frequent star collisions
24.
Extremely distant, bright, energetic object located in the core of some active galaxies.
1. pulsar
2. quasar
3. black hole
4. white dwarf
25.
Explain the relationship between the Doppler effect and what astronomers call "redshift" and "blueshift". Be sure to explain what we can learn about objects by observing the Doppler effect and where the terms red shift and blue shift come from.

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