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Pastry (Continuing Education)

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Both pasta and pastry are types of                           doughs. Pasta is made from flour and                   and is boiled, while pastry is made from flour and             and is baked.
Pastry dough is versatile and may be used for sweet pies or                     turnovers or tarts.
The basic ingredients in pastry dough, in order of quantity, are flour,             , water or other liquid,               , and sometimes sugar for browning and sweetness.
Pastry dough is different from bread dough, as it is handled                   to minimize the development of                   so the dough can be easily shaped and remain tender.
The flour type most commonly used for a flaky pie crust is                                         flour. Short pastry is often made with lower                     pastry flour to minimize gluten development.
Fats used in pastry dough such as butter,                and                           will all result in a flaky crust, whereas using             may result in a                 crust.
A popular ratio proportion of flour to fat in pie dough is           parts flour :           parts fat.
A method to limit gluten development in pastry dough, in addition to gentle handling, is to add an                   ingredient such as lemon juice,                     , buttermilk or                            .
To achieve a flaky pie crust, the dough structure must consist of flattened layers of                 , between             layers that puff up into flakes when baked.
To prevent wet fillings from causing pie dough from becoming soggy, pastry is sometimes pre-baked                 , with a layer of foil or parchment over the dough and weight on top, such as dried                 or pie weights that keep the dough from                               

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