Making Inferences (Grade 9)

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Making Inferences

It is not often that you hear tattoos and teeth combined into the same discussion. However, according to a Princeton University researcher, the two may make the perfect combination to help ensure a person's continued good health!

Although most tattoos are made out of ink, this one is actually a wireless sensor made out of a very thin and sticky layer of carbon. Another layer of peptides, or chain of amino acids, is added to the carbon since it is known for its ability to attract harmful bacteria. When this specialized tattoo is placed on a tooth, dangerous bacteria gravitate to the sensor and become stuck there. Once the sensor registers the presence of bacteria, a warning is sent out to the designated physician. It states that a potential health problem is developing and needs immediate attention. Best of all, unlike traditional tattoos, application of this bacteria-sensing tool is absolutely painless.

Currently, the tooth tattoo is just an idea rather than a reality. Researchers are trying to figure out how to reduce the sensors so that they are small enough to place on a human tooth. They also hope to find ways to apply the sensor to other objects such as shower curtains or hospital IV tubes in the hopes of detecting the presence of bacteria.
Based on this passage, which statement is the most factually accurate?
  1. The application of any kind of tattoo is quite painful.
  2. The inks used for these specials tattoos have to be non-toxic.
  3. The sensor is designed to send out a warning if a health problem is detected.
  4. The same types of bacteria in the mouth are often found on the inside of shower curtains.
Which statement is most likely true about these tattoos?
  1. The key to using the tattoos effectively is making them small enough to apply.
  2. The development of the tattoos will be stalled until the dentistry field expands.
  3. The tattoos will typically not detect bacteria on anyone since it is quite rare.
  4. The average physician may find using these sensors too complicated and high-tech.
Which of the following steps will researchers most likely concentrate on developing next with these tattoos?
  1. Finding a way to eliminate harmful bacteria from the body.
  2. Creating a sensor that will apply to multiple surfaces.
  3. Convincing dental patients to apply the tattoos to teeth.
  4. Deciding what role the peptides will play in the tattoos.
Imagine racing across almost one thousand miles of Alaskan terrain with nothing to protect you against the freezing temperatures other than your clothes and your determination? For some, this might sound like torture. For many other people, it is an adventure they train for all year round.

For the past 40 years, dozens of dedicated men and women have participated in the Iditarod, a contest that has been nicknamed the last great race on Earth. Gathering in Anchorage, Alaska, the racers check their sleds, dog teams, and gear before starting. This race can take up to two weeks or more to complete, and, as they travel, the competitors will stop and check in at 25 small towns along the route.

The trip is difficult and exhausting, but racers are equipped with everything from cell phones to Global Positioning Devices. Most of the competitors are sponsored by businesses and blog the journey as they cover mile after mile.

The sled drivers are in good company: their team of sled dogs. Most of the dogs are either Siberian Huskies or Alaskan Malamutes, chosen for their strength, endurance, and speed. The dogs are able to cover up to 100 miles a day and each one has its unique position on the team. Together, the dogs and their mushers race over snow and ice, in wind and through blizzards to reach that all-important finish line.
What is the most likely meaning of the word "musher"?
  1. Lead dog
  2. Sled driver
  3. Winning racer
  4. Company sponsor
What is the most likely reason that people participate in the Iditarod?
  1. For the huge prize money
  2. To travel throughout Alaska
  3. For the adventurous experience
  4. To spend a great deal of time outside
Why do competitors most likely stop in at small towns along the route?
  1. They want to rest for a few days.
  2. They change both their sleds and dog teams.
  3. They need time to consult the map and verify directions.
  4. They record their position and show that they are still on route
What is the most likely meaning of the word "musher"?
  1. Lead dog
  2. Sled driver

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