CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.8.3

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Analyzing a Speech (Grade 8)

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Name: Date:

Analyzing a Speech

Mr. Vice President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the Senate, and of the House of Representatives:

Yesterday, December 7th, 1941 -- a date which will live in infamy -- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific.

Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American island of Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to our Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. And while this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or of armed attack.

It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.

The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. I regret to tell you that very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.

Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya.

Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.

Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.

Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.

Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.

And this morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.

Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday and today speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.

As Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. But always will our whole nation remember the character of the onslaught against us.

No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.

I believe that I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make it very certain that this form of treachery shall never again endanger us.

Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory, and our interests are in grave danger.

With confidence in our armed forces, with the unbounding determination of our people, we will gain the inevitable triumph -- so help us God.

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7th, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire.
What is the purpose of the speech?
  1. To explain what happened during the attack on Pearl Harbor
  2. To declare war on Japan
  3. To describe the strength of the Armed Forces
  4. To summarize the war with Japan
What is the tone of the speech?
  1. Anger
  2. Despair
  3. Pride
  4. Strength
Why does the speaker repeat the words "last night"?
  1. To draw attention to the negative actions of Japan
  2. To make the speech flow better
  3. To show action that will be taken against Japan
  4. To quickly cover what happened
Which type of organization is used most in the text?
  1. Cause and effect
  2. Compare and contrast
  3. Sequence of events
  4. Order of importance
How does the speaker show that going to war with Japan is justified?

In the beginning of the speech, what does the speaker mean when he calls December 7, 1941 "a date that will live in infamy?"

What does the word "premeditated" mean as used in the speech?
  1. Planned in advance
  2. Happened at random
  3. Done intentionally
  4. Not planned thoroughly
Ethos is a technique where the speaker appeals to his authority or honesty.
Logos is a technique where the speaker appeals to logic.
Pathos is a technique where the speaker appeals to emotion.

Which technique does the speaker use most in this speech?
  1. Ethos
  2. Pathos
  3. Logos
  4. None of the above

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