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Fermentation (Grades 11-12)

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What role does oxygen play in cellular respiration?
  1. It is reduced in glycolysis as glucose is oxidized.
  2. It provides electrons to the electron transport chain.
  3. It is required for the production of heat and light.
  4. It serves as the final electron acceptor during the electron transport chain.
How are fermentation and cellular respiration similar? What is the main difference between their starting compounds?

Certain types of bacteria thrive in conditions that lack oxygen. What does that fact indicate about the way they obtain energy?

Which statement concerning fermentation is true?
  1. Fermentation produces additional ATP.
  2. Fermentation occurs in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions.
  3. The end product of fermentation in human cells is ethanol.
  4. Fermentation, like glycolysis, occurs in the cytoplasm of cells.
Which statement is a true distinction between cellular respiration and fermentation?
  1. NADH is oxidized by the electron transport chain in cellular respiration only.
  2. Fermentation is an example of an endergonic reaction, while cellular respiration is an exergonic reaction.
  3. Substrate-level phosphorylation is unique to fermentation only.
  4. Fermentation is the metabolic pathway of prokaryotes, whereas cellular respiration is used only by eukaryotes.
When muscle cells are depleted of oxygen, they generate NAD+ through the process of                                                       , which often can causes cramping.
How is fermentation related to the production of bread?
  1. The absence of oxygen converts the sugar in the bread dough into oxygen, which is then removed from the bread.
  2. The ATP produced through fermentation is used by the bakers to knead the dough into the proper shapes.
  3. Yeast cells undergo alcoholic fermentation, which creates carbon dioxide that makes bread rise.
  4. Bacterial cells in the dough convert sugars through lactic acid fermentation into oxygen, allowing the dough to increase in height.
How does fermentation compensate for the lack of oxygen in terms of electron acceptors?
  1. Fermentation creates an alternative pathway for NADH to be recycled back into NAD+.
  2. Fermentation prevents glucose from being completely oxidized so the number of electrons is limited.
  3. Fermentation creates carbon dioxide to serve as the final electron acceptor during the Kreb's cycle.
  4. Fermentation can oxidize many other substances even without the presence of oxygen.
If a yeast cell that was feeding on glucose was moved from an aerobic environment into an anaerobic one, what would have to happen to its rate of glucose consumption in order to maintain ATP production at the same rate?

During lactic acid fermentation, lactate is carried to the liver where it is converted back into pyruvate.
  1. True
  2. False
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