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Mendelian Genetics Problems (Grade 10)

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Mendelian Genetics Problems

What is the probability of offspring being red in color in a cross between a homozygous dominant red parent and a homozygous recessive white parent?
Table 2x2
  1. 25%
  2. 50%
  3. 75%
  4. 100%
If red is dominant to white, what is the expected phenotypic ratio of offspring in a cross between two parents who are heterozygous for this trait?
Table 2x2
  1. 1 red : 2 white : 1 pink
  2. 2 red : 2 white
  3. 4 red : 0 white
  4. 3 red : 1 white
Albinism is a condition that results when an organism does not produce the pigment melanin. The genotype for albinism is homozygous recessive (aa) and not sex-linked. Suppose an albino female rabbit mates with a normal male whose father was an albino. What is the genotype of the normal male rabbit?
Table 2x2
  1. aa
  2. Aa
  3. AA
  4. cannot be determined
In humans, four blood types are possible (A, B, AB, and O). Those with A or B blood can be either homozygous dominant (AA, BB) or heterozygous (Ai, Bi). Type AB blood is considered a codominant condition, and type O blood lacks the A or B antigen (ii).

Which genotype is possible in the children of a man with type B blood and a woman with type A blood?
Table 2x2
  1. A or B only
  2. AB only
  3. AB or O
  4. A, B, or O
  5. A, B, AB, or O
Leonard and Penny both have freckles, but their son does not. How is it possible that two parents, each expressing the trait, can have offspring that do not show the trait?

In fruit flies, one of the genes for eye color is found on the X chromosome (making it a sex-linked trait). The allele for red eyes is dominant over the allele for white eyes. Using the notation R, r, and O, what are the possible phenotypes of a cross between a heterozygous red female and a red-eyed male?
Table 2x2
  1. All offspring would have red eyes, regardless of sex.
  2. The females would all have red eyes, and the males would have white eyes.
  3. The females would all have red eyes, and the males would have either red or white eyes.
  4. The males would have white eyes, and the females would have either red or white eyes.
Guinea pigs have dark fur (D) or white fur (d). They also have a rough coat (R) or a smooth coat (r). If two guinea pigs that are heterozygous for both traits are crossed, what are the expected phenotypes of the offspring?
Table 4x4
  1. All the offspring will have dark fur and a rough coat.
  2. All the offspring will have white fur and a smooth coat.
  3. There will be a mixture of dark/rough, dark/smooth, white/rough, and white/smooth offspring.
  4. There will only be dark/rough and white/smooth offspring.
When red-flowered snapdragons are crossed with white-flowered snapdragons, the offspring all appear pink. This indicates that the alleles for flower color exhibit incomplete dominance. What flower colors in the offspring would be expected from a cross of two individuals with pink flowers?
Table 2x2
  1. All the offspring would have red flowers.
  2. All the offspring would have pink flowers.
  3. Some offspring would have red flowers, some white, and some pink.
  4. The offspring would have only white or pink flowers.
A cross is performed, and the phenotypic ratio for the traits of the offspring is 9 dominant/dominant : 3 dominant/recessive : 3 recessive/dominant : 1 recessive/recessive. What can be determined about the genotype of the parents?
Table 4x4
  1. Both parents had an AABB genotype.
  2. One parent was AABB, and the other was aabb.
  3. One parent was AaBb, and the other was AABB.
  4. Both parents had an AaBb genotype.
A man with the genotype AABBCCDDEE marries a woman with the genotype aabbccddee. What is the expected genotypic ratio of their offspring?
  1. 50% homozygous dominant : 50% homozygous recessive
  2. 100% homozygous recessive
  3. 100% heterozygous
  4. 25% heterozygous : 50% homozygous dominant : 25% homozygous recessive
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