# Energy and Heat Capacity (Grades 11-12)

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## Energy and Heat Capacity

**Instructions:**
Read each question carefully. Choose the answer that best fits the question. If the question involves calculations, you must show all your math work.

1.

Nuclear fusion creates energy in the Sun. During this process, hydrogen atoms combine to create helium. The mass of the helium created is less than the mass of the hydrogen from which it was made. The lost mass is converted to radiant energy. The Sun loses [math]4.3xx10^9kg[/math] of mass every second. How much energy is released in one second?

**Remember, [math]E=mc^2[/math], where c, the speed of light, is equal to [math]3xx10^8m/sec[/math], and [math]m[/math] is the mass in [math]kg[/math].

**Remember, [math]E=mc^2[/math], where c, the speed of light, is equal to [math]3xx10^8m/sec[/math], and [math]m[/math] is the mass in [math]kg[/math].

2.

The first law of thermodynamics states that

- components of a system interact.
- entropy of a closed system always increases.
- a closed system always shifts toward disorder or homogeneity.
- energy is always conserved.

3.

Which statement describes the direction of spontaneous heat flow?

- Heat flows between two objects at the same temperature.
- Heat flows in a vacuum by conduction.
- Heat flows from an object at high temperature to one at low temperature.
- Heat flows from an object at low temperature to one at high temperature.

4.

Copper has a specific heat of 0.385 J/(g•°C). A piece of copper absorbs 5000 J of energy and undergoes a temperature change from 100 °C to 200 °C. What is the mass of the piece of copper? ([math]m=Q/(C*DeltaT)[/math])

5.

How much energy is contained in the mass of a 60-kilogram person?

**Remember, [math]E=mc^2[/math], where c, the speed of light, is equal to [math]3xx10^8m/sec[/math], and [math]m[/math] is the mass in [math]kg[/math].

**Remember, [math]E=mc^2[/math], where c, the speed of light, is equal to [math]3xx10^8m/sec[/math], and [math]m[/math] is the mass in [math]kg[/math].

6.

Which of the following best determines the amount of energy of a single photon of light?

- The speed of the photon
- The frequency of the photon
- The material the photon moves through
- The time it takes the photon to reach a destination

7.

A 15.75-g piece of iron absorbs 1086.75 joules of heat energy, and its temperature changes from 25°C to 175°C. Calculate the specific heat capacity of iron.

[math]C=Q/(m*DeltaT)[/math]

[math]C=Q/(m*DeltaT)[/math]

8.

Gold has a specific heat of 0.129 J/(g•°C). How many joules of heat energy are required to raise the temperature of 15 grams of gold from 22°C to 85°C?

([math]Q=m*C*DeltaT[/math])

([math]Q=m*C*DeltaT[/math])

9.

Which of these is a measure of the average kinetic energy of all the particles in an object?

- temperature
- radiation
- thermal energy
- density

10.

If 335 g of water at 65.5 °C loses 9750 J of heat, what is the final temperature of the water? Liquid water has a specific heat of 4.18 J/(g•°C).

[math]DeltaT=Q/(m*C)[/math]

[math]DeltaT=Q/(m*C)[/math]

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