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Second Law of Thermodynamics & Free Energy (College)

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Second Law of Thermodynamics & Free Energy

Which of the following correctly describes an increase in entropy?
  1. freezing
  2. crystallization of a solution
  3. dissolving
  4. condensation
Which of the following is an example of a spontaneous process?
  1. The melting of an ice cube, when it is in contact with a body of water at 75ºC
  2. The conversion of kinetic energy into gravitational potential energy
  3. The condensation of liquid particles
  4. The freezing of liquid nitrogen
Which of the following correctly describes the Second Law of Thermodynamics?
  1. The universe is constantly decreasing in disorder
  2. The entropy in the universe is equal to zero
  3. The universe is constantly increasing in disorder
  4. None of the above
In addition to what is posited about changes in entropy, according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, what is happening to energy?
  1. Energy is decreasing
  2. Energy is increasing
  3. Energy is constant
  4. Energy is equal to zero
Which of the following does NOT describe a case in which the driving force for a spontaneous process is demonstrated?
  1. [math]H_2O (s) rarr H_2O (g)[/math]
  2. [math]NaHCO_3 (s) rarr Na^+ (aq) + HCO_3^{-} (aq)[/math]
  3. [math]N_2 + 3H_2 rarr 2NH_3[/math]
  4. None of the above
Which of the following equations correctly characterizes the equation used in the Second Law of Thermodynamics?
  1. [math]∆S_{univ}=∆S_{sys} - ∆S_[surr}[/math]
  2. [math]∆S_{univ}={∆S_{sys}}/{∆S_[surr}}[/math]
  3. [math]∆S_{univ}=∆S_{sys} • ∆S_[surr}[/math]
  4. [math]∆S_{univ}=∆S_{sys} + ∆S_[surr}[/math]
Which of the following values implies a spontaneous process?
  1. [math]∆S_{univ}>1[/math]
  2. [math]∆S_{univ}<0[/math]
  3. [math]∆S_{univ}=0[/math]
  4. [math]∆S_{univ}>0[/math]
Which values of ∆H and T∆S could imply a spontaneous reaction?
  1. ∆H>0 and T∆S<0
  2. ∆H<0 and T∆S<0
  3. ∆H<0 and T∆S>0
  4. ∆H>0 and T∆S>0
Based on the reaction shown below:
[math]NaOH(s) rarr Na^{+}(aq) + OH^{-}(aq)[/math]
(a) Predict the magnitudes of ∆S and ∆H.

(b) Determine whether the reaction is spontaneous or nonspontaneous.

For a reaction to be considered nonspontaneous, ∆H must be                       , while T∆S must be                       .

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