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# Bonding, Molecules, & Molecular Geometry - Review (Grades 11-12)

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## Bonding, Molecules, & Molecular Geometry - Review

Instructions: Answer the following questions, based on your knowledge of chemical bonding, intermolecular forces, and molecular structure.

1.
What accounts for the attractions in a chemical bond?
1. The fact that the nucleus is neutral, while the electrons are negative
2. The fact that the nucleus is negative, while the electrons are positive
3. The fact that the nucleus is neutral, while the electrons are positive
4. The fact that there are protons in the nucleus, while the electrons surrounding the nucleus are negative
2.
How are bonds formed?
1. By the attraction between the electrons of two atoms.
2. By the attraction between the nuclei of two atoms.
3. By the attraction between the nucleus of an atom and the electrons of another atom.
4. By the attraction between the electrons of one atom and the neutrons of another atom.
3.
Which term correctly describes the ability of an element to attract electrons towards itself in a bond?
1. second ionization energy
3. metallic character
4. electronegativity
4.
Given the equation below:
HCl + energy $rarr$ H + Cl
How can this equation be described?
1. This reaction is endothermic, and the heat is released.
2. This reaction is exothermic, and the heat is released.
3. This reaction is exothermic, and the heat is absorbed.
4. The reaction is endothermic, and the heat is absorbed.
5.
What happens as the atoms in a molecule of fluorine come closer together?
1. The forces of attraction between the atoms become weaker, while the forces of repulsion between the atoms become stronger.
2. The forces of repulsion between the atoms become weaker, while the forces of attraction between the atoms become stronger.
3. The forces of repulsion and the forces of attraction become stronger.
4. The forces of repulsion balance out the forces of attraction.
6.
What happens to the stability of a system as a bond breaks apart?
1. The system becomes more stable.
2. The system becomes less stable.
3. The stability depends on the bond involved.
4. The stability is not affected by the formation or breaking of a bond.
7.
What happens as an atom of hydrogen and an atom of chlorine combine to become hydrogen chloride?
1. A bond is formed as energy is absorbed.
2. A bond is formed as energy is released.
3. A bond is broken as energy is absorbed.
4. A bond is broken as energy is released.
8.
What occurs when HBr breaks down to form an H atom and a Br atom?
1. Energy is absorbed.
2. Energy is released.
3. Energy is created.
4. Matter is destroyed.
9.
Which element will attract electrons in a chemical bond?
1. calcium
2. magnesium
3. silver
4. bromine
10.
The prefix "intra-" in "intramolecular forces" means that attractive forces are
1. within molecules.
2. between molecules.
3. outside of molecules.
4. around molecules.
11.
Which of the following choices states the two main types of bonds?
3. Covalent, Ionic
12.
Which one of the following is not a form of chemical bonding?
1. covalent bonding
2. hydrogen bonding
3. ionic bonding
4. metallic bonding
13.
A covalent bond is formed as the result of
1. transferring electrons.
2. sharing an electron pair.
3. transferring protons.
4. sharing a proton pair.
14.
A bond formed by the attraction between oppositely charged ions is called a(n)                        .
1. polar covalent bond.
2. ionic bond.
3. metallic bond.
4. nonpolar covalent bond.
15.
Look at the electron-dot diagram for hydrogen.

An atom of hydrogen would be most likely to bond with an atom of which of the following elements?
16.
When oxygen forms an ion, what charge does it have?
1. -1
2. -2
3. +1
4. +2
17.
When Cu (III) forms an ion, what charge does it have?
1. +1
2. 0
3. -3
4. +3
18.
What is the correct ionic symbol for potassium?
1. $K^{+2}$
2. $K^{+1}$
3. $K^{-2}$
4. $K^{-1}$
19.
How many electrons can a carbon atom share?
1. 1
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4
20.
Which one of the following is most likely to lose electrons when forming an ion?
1. Ca
2. F
3. Ne
4. O
21.
When Ag(I) forms an ion, what charge does it have?
1. +1
2. +2
3. -1
4. 0
22.
What is the correct ionic symbol for the nitrogen ion?
1. $N^{+2}$
2. $N^{-2}$
3. $N^{+3}$
4. $N^{-3}$
23.
Which two elements combine to form a covalent bond?
1. magnesium and aluminum
2. sodium and chlorine
3. oxygen and carbon
4. sulfur and tin
24.
An ionic bond could form between
1. silicon and sulfur.
2. fluorine and chlorine.
3. sodium and aluminum.
4. potassium and oxygen.
5. none of the above.
25.
If two oxygen atoms combine to make a molecule, what type of bond will they form?
1. an ionic bond
2. a hydrogen bond
3. a double covalent bond
4. a metallic bond
26.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
1. When Na and F bond, Na transfers one electron to F.
2. When Ca and O bond, O transfers two electrons to Ca.
3. When Ag(I) and I bond, Ag transfers 1 electron to I
4. When metals and nonmetals bond, the metals transfer electrons to the nonmetals.
27.
A bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metals ions and the electrons around them is a(n)
1. ionic bond.
2. gold bond.
3. metallic bond.
4. covalent bond.
28.
An unknown substance is an excellent electrical conductor in the solid state and is malleable. What kind of chemical bonding does this substance exhibit?
1. ionic bonding
2. molecular bonding
3. metallic bonding
4. can't determine from the information given
29.
Which of the following covalent bonds can be classified as being the least polar?
1. H-Cl
2. H-H
3. H-F
4. H-Br
30.
Based on considerations of bond polarity, how could the bonds in $C O_2$ be classified?
1. nonpolar covalent
2. ionic
3. polar covalent
4. none of the above
31.
Which of the following atoms, when bonded to an atom of fluorine, would produce a bond with the greatest degree of polarity?
1. sulfur
2. nitrogen
3. hydrogen
4. bromine
32.
Which of the following ionic bonds has the greatest degree of polarity?
1. Li-O
2. Li-F
3. Na-Cl
4. Na-Br
33.
Which of the following types of bonds present in hydrogen bonding is most polar?
1. H-O
2. H-F
3. H-N
4. Both (a) and (b) are the most polar
34.
What is the most likely electronegativity difference of a nonpolar covalent bond?
1. 1.2
2. 0
3. 0.8
4. 2.1
35.
Which of the following statements correctly describes how the bond polarity of NaCl compares to that of $H_2 S$?
1. It has a weaker bond polarity.
2. It has a stronger bond polarity.
3. They have equal bond polarities.
4. There is not enough information to answer this question.
36.
The chemical formula for propanol is $C_3 H_7 OH$. The bond between which two atoms in this compound is least polar?
1. C-O
2. O-H
3. C-H
4. C-C
37.
Which of the following occurs when sodium and chlorine bond together to form sodium chloride?
1. A chlorine atom donates an electron to a sodium atom.
2. A chlorine atom donates a proton to a sodium atom.
3. A chlorine atom accepts a proton from a sodium atom.
4. A chlorine atom accepts an electron from a sodium atom.
38.
Which molecule involves an electrovalent bond?
1. $H_2$
2. $CH_4$
3. $CaCl_2$
4. $HCl$
39.
What is the main type of bonding found in CsI?
1. covalent bonding
2. ionic bonding
3. metallic bonding
4. coordinate covalent bonding
40.
Predict the predominant type of bonding of $"CCl"_4$.
1. covalent bonding
2. ionic bonding
3. metallic bonding
41.
What is the main type of bonding present in a sample of zinc?
1. covalent bonding
2. ionic bonding
3. metallic bonding
42.
Predict the predominant type of bonding of silver (Ag) and mercury (Hg).
1. covalent bonding
2. ionic bonding
3. metallic bonding
43.
A polar covalent bond is likely to form between two atoms that
1. are similar in electronegativity.
2. are of similar size.
3. differ in electronegativity.
4. have the same number of electrons.
44.
Which of the following has the smallest bond length?
1. $O_2$
2. $N_2$
3. $Cl_2$
4. $HCl$
45.
Hybrid orbitals give stronger covalent bonds due to
1. their orientation.
2. larger extent of overlap.
3. their similar shapes.
4. the presence of unpaired electrons.
46.
The strength of a bond depends upon
1. free rotation about a bond.
2. extent of overlapping between the radicals.
3. resonance in the molecule.
4. whether the overlap is axial or sidewise.
47.
When Zn (I) ions and nitrogen form an ionic bond, what is the chemical formula of the compound?
1. $Zn_3N$
2. $ZnN$
3. $Zn_2N_2$
4. $ZnN_3$
48.
When calcium and phosphorus form an ionic compound, what is the chemical formula of the compound?
1. $CaP$
2. $Ca_2P_3$
3. $Ca_3P_2$
4. $Ca_3P_3$
49.
When Nb (I) ions and phosphorus form an ionic bond, what is the chemical formula of the compound?
1. $Nb_3P$
2. $NbP$
3. $Nb_2P_3$
4. $NbP_3$
50.
When beryllium and selenium form an ionic bond, what is the chemical formula of the compound?
1. $Be_2Se_2$
2. $BeSe_2$
3. $Be_2Se$
4. $BeSe$
51.
When Fe (IV) ions and oxygen form an ionic bond, what is the chemical formula of the compound?
1. $Fe_4O$
2. $Fe_2O$
3. $FeO_2$
4. $Fe_2O_4$
52.
When calcium and sulfur form an ionic bond, what is the chemical formula of the compound?
1. $Ca_2S_2$
2. $CaS$
3. $CaS_2$
4. $Ca_2S$
53.
What is the correct name for the formula $PbS$?
1. Lead (I) sulfide
2. Lead (II) sulfide
54.
What is the correct chemical name for $NH_4OH$?
1. Ammonia Hydroxide
2. Ammonium Hydride
3. Ammonium Hydroxide
4. Ammonium Oxide
55.
What does a line in a Lewis structure represent?
1. one electron
2. two electrons
3. four electrons
4. unpaired electrons
56.
The partial charges on a water molecule occur because of
1. covalent bonding.
2. the high electronegativity of hydrogen.
4. the unequal sharing of electrons between the hydrogen and oxygen.
57.
Which of the following intermolecular forces is the main type of intermolecular forces in a nonpolar molecule?
1. dipole-dipole forces
2. hydrogen bonding
3. London Dispersion forces
4. None of the above
58.
Water is a polar molecule. This means that
1. the opposite ends of the molecule have opposite electrical charges.
2. water molecules are linear, like a pole.
3. water is one of the many hydrophobic molecules.
4. the atoms in water have equal electronegativities.
59.
When a molecule has a positive end and a negative end, it is called a(n)                 molecule.
1. polar
2. nonpolar
3. neutral
4. ionized
60.
According to VSEPR theory, the molecular geometry for $"CH"_"3"^{+}$ is
1. tetrahedral.
2. trigonal pyramidal.
3. bent or angular.
4. none of the above.
61.
Which of the following compound does not contain a polyatomic ion?
1. sodium carbonate
2. sodium sulfate
3. sodium sulfite
4. sodium sulfide
62.
Water acts as a solvent of ionic compounds because
1. water molecules are polar.
2. water takes the shape of its container.
3. water is found in three states of matter.
4. water is a liquid over a wide range of temperatures.
63.
Which phrase correctly describes the distribution of charge and the molecular polarity of ethane?
1. symmetrical and polar
2. asymmetrical and polar
3. asymmetrical and nonpolar
4. symmetrical and nonpolar
64.
Which of the following molecular geometries could be nonpolar?
1. bent
2. tetrahedral
3. trigonal pyramidal
4. none of the above
65.
Which statement correctly describes NaCl?
1. Its charge is distributed evenly.
2. It is a polar molecule.
3. It is ionic, and its charges are distributed very unevenly.
4. It contains polar covalent bonds.
66.
Which formula represents a nonpolar molecule?
1. $HBr$
2. $H_2S$
3. $CBr_4$
4. $PCl_3$
67.
Which of the following molecules, based on the elements present, would be the most polar?
1. HF
2. $H_2$
3. HCl
4. HBr
68.
Which molecule is polar?
1. $"CCl"_4$
2. $"CO"_2$
3. $"SO"_3$
4. none of the these
69.
What is the chemical formula for dinitrogen heptafluoride?
1. $N_7F_2$
2. $N_2F_7$
3. $NF_12$
4. $N_2F_9$
70.
Which of the following is a polar molecule?
1. $CH_4$
2. Xe
3. $H_2 O$
4. $CO_2$
71.
Which of the following describes the charge distribution and molecular polarity of $NH_3$?
1. even distribution and polar
2. uneven distribution and nonpolar
3. uneven distribution and polar
4. even distribution and nonpolar
72.
What are two or more charged atoms held together by covalent bonds called?
1. Polyatomic Ions
2. Molecular Compounds
3. Binary Compounds
4. Covalent Bonds
73.
Propane is a gas at STP, while bromine is a liquid at STP. Which statement correctly explains these observations?
1. Bromine has weaker intermolecular forces than propane does.
2. Bromine has greater molecular polarity than propane does.
3. Bromine has weaker molecular polarity than propane does.
4. Bromine has stronger intermolecular forces than propane does.
74.
What makes hydrogen bonding between water molecules, ammonia molecules, or molecule of hydrogen fluoride so strong?
1. There is an attraction between a small, weakly electronegative hydrogen atom and a large, strongly electronegative atom of fluorine, nitrogen, or oxygen.
2. There is an attraction between a small, highly electronegative hydrogen atom and a large, highly electronegative fluorine atom.
3. There is an attraction between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms, only.
4. There is an attraction between the hydrogen and nitrogen atoms, only.
75.
Which of the following helps to identify the specific intermolecular forces existing between molecules?
1. bond type
2. density
3. solubility
4. molecular polarity
76.
Which of the following would likely involve the presence of dipole-dipole forces?
1. HF
2. Ne
3. $O_2$
4. ICl
77.
When does a molecule tend to form?
1. When 2 elements are combined
2. When 2 or more atoms bond covalently
3. When atoms disappear
78.
A fluorine molecule is formed by
1. p-p orbitals (sidewise overlap).
2. p-p orbitals (end to end overlap).
3. sp-sp orbitals overlaps.
4. s-s orbitals overlaps.
79.
Which of the following statements correctly compares the behavior of a mixture of ethanol and water at STP?
1. Water will evaporate first, because it has weaker intermolecular forces.
2. Ethanol will evaporate first, because it has weaker intermolecular forces.
3. Ethanol and water will evaporate simultaneously.
4. The aqueous solution will evaporate partially at a temperature between the boiling points of water and of ethanol.
80.
Among the following, what is the molecule with linear geometry?
1. $C_2H_4$
2. $BeF_2$
3. $NH_3$
4. $H_2O$
81.
Explain how the Lewis electron-dot diagram for $CHCl_3$ should be drawn.

82.
A molecule containing polar covalent bonds is always polar.
1. True
2. False
83.
can be defined as the attractive force which binds hydrogen atom of one molecule with the electronegative atom (F,O, or N) of another molecule.
84.
Explain the difference between intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces. Provide an example of each.

85.
Long bond length is very strong.
1. True
2. False
86.
Explain why the bond between hydrogen and sulfur in $H_2 S$ is more polar than the bond between nitrogen and oxygen in $N O_2$ is.

87.
Pure covalent bonds exist, but pure ionic bonds do not.
1. True
2. False
88.
Every combination of atoms is NOT a molecule.
1. True
2. False
89.
The C=S bond in $CS_2$ is more polar than the Cl-Cl bond in $Cl_2$ is.
1. True
2. False
90.
Water molecules involve covalent bonds.
1. True
2. False
91.
The type of energy typically found to be stored in a bond between atoms is known as                          energy.
92.
Given the balanced equation representing a reaction:

$"F" + "F" to "F"_2$

Explain how the bond is being formed.

93.
An                  bond forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom.
94.
What is the molecular formula for iron (III) fluoride?
95.
What is the molecular formula for calcium carbonate?
96.
What is the molecular formula for carbon tetrachloride?
97.
What is the molecular formula for dicarbon tetrabromide?
98.
What is the molecular formula for ammonium sulfate?
99.
What is the molecular formula for lead(IV) sulfide?
100.
HCl and $F_2$ both have a molecular mass of approximately 36 g/mol. Compare the boiling points of these two molecules, based on intermolecular forces.

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