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Tenth Grade (Grade 10) Cell Structure and Function Questions

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Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
What is cytoplasm?
  1. Gel-like material with organelles
  2. Controls what enters and exits the cell
  3. Contains DNA, control center of the cell
  4. Gives shape, support, and moves structures
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
The function of the mitotic cell cycle is to produce daughter cells that
  1. have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell but not the same genetic content
  2. have a random assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes
  3. have the same number of chromatids as the parent cell had chromosomes
  4. are genetically identical to the parent cell (assuming no mutation has occurred)
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function

PART 1: History of cells

1.) In the 1660s         Hooke         discovered the "cell" in cork.
2.) In the 1670s                  Van Leewenhoek                  saw living cells. These cells were         sperm         cells. He used a        270x        powered microscope.
3.)                        Schleiden or Schwann                        and                        Schleiden or Schwann                        established cell theory.
4.)               Cell theory               is a view that all living things are composed of cells.
5.) The view that cells come from other living things is called              biogenisis             , which a man named           Virchow           came up with.
6.) A         virus         is only alive when it's in the host cell. The                protein coat                protects the virus.
7.) The idea the life comes from non-living things is called                          spontaneous generation                         .

PART 2: Characteristics of various cell types

8.) Cells that lack a membrane and a nucleus are called                     prokaryotic cells                    .
9.) The site of ribosome synthesis is located in the             nucleolus            .
10.) The liquid part of a cell is the             cytoplasm            .
11.)             Ribosomes             are the site of protein synthesis and            Rough ER           are made in the nucleolus, which move into the cytoplasm.
12.) Any cells with membrane bound organelles are                     eukoryotic cells                     .
13.) Animals are                 multicellular                 and                heterophobic               , where plants are                 multicellular                 and               autotrophic              .
14.) Fungi are               unicellular              /                multicellular                 and                heterophobic               , where protists are just               unicellular              .

PART 3: Nucleus

15.) The           nucleus           regulates all cell activities and stores genetic info.
16.) The                    nuclear envelope                    or also referred to as the                    nuclear membrane                    regulates what enters or exits the nucleus through nuclear pores.
17.)                  Nuclear lamina                  is the network of proteins that cover the inside of the nuclear membrane.
18.) The             nucleolus             makes ribosomes.
19.)       DNA       which is genetic material, is also found in the nucleus.

PART 4: Endoplasmic Reticulum

20.)                         Endoplasmic Reticulum                         is the network of tubes in the cytoplasm.
21.)            Rough ER            is involved in protein synthesis due to the presence of ribosomes on its surface. It transports proteins to the golgi apparatus.
22.)             Smooth ER             is involved in detoxification of drugs and poisons.
23.) ER is derived from the                 "flaking off"                 of the nuclear membrane.

PART 5: Ribosomes

24.)             Ribosomes             are found in the cytoplasm or attached to rough ER.
25.)              "Floaters"              make proteins that stay inside the cytoplasm.
26.)              "Attached"              make proteins that have three possible factors. The proteins can be transported totally out of the cell, can become part of the cell membrane, or can be processed through the golgi apparatus and be enclosed in the membrane and form lysosomes.

PART 6: Golgi Apparatus

27.) The                   golgi apparatus                   is a series of flattened sacks called             Cisternae             which is formed from ER. It is also the processing center for a cell. It processes proteins and other secretions for exports.

PART 7: Lysosomes

28.)             Lysosomes             recycle worn out organelles and are sometimes referred to as the                  "suicide sacs"                  of a cell.
29.)              Aproptosis              is programmed cell death.
30.) Aproptosis also contains           enzymes           which digest various substances.
31.)                             White blood cells (WBC's)                             engulf bacteria and the enzymes in the lysosomes basically destroying the bacteria.

PART 8: Mitochondria

32.)                Mitochondria                possess their own DNA and ribosomes.
33.) Cisternae is the folding of the                  inner membrane                 .
34.) The          matrix          is the center of the mitochondria.
35.)                        Inter-membrane space                        is the space between the inner and outer membrane.

PART 9: Chloroplast

36.)               Chloroplast               posses their own DNA and ribosomes. It's a part of photosynthesis and is only in plant cells.
37.) The disk-like structures are called              thylakoids             .
38.) Groups of thylakoids are called           granums           which are located in the liquid part of the chloroplast called the          stroma         .

PART 10: Centroids and Vacuoles

39.)             Centroids             are found in animal cells in pairs and are factors of cell division.
40.)            Vacuoles            are found in both plant cells and animal cells. Their primarily storage regions.
41.) There is one big vacuole called the                   central vacuole                  .

PART 11: Cytoskeleton

42.) The                Cytoskeleton                is a network of protein fibers that function in movement and structure. (Provides support)
43.)                Microtubules                are the largest in size, contain tubulin, and are found in cilia and flagella. They also allow chromosome movement during cell division.
44.)                  Microfiliments                  are the most narrow in size, contain actin, and are involved in cyclosis, pseodopods, and cytokenesis for animal cells.
45.) The                          intermediate filements                          are middle in size, contain keratin, and are involved in the formation of nuclear lamina and keeping organelles in place.
46.) The little tail-like thing on the cell, which is used to help move in water is called            flagella           .
47.)         Cilia         are the hair-like organelles that are on the surface of              paramecium             .
48.) Cilia and flagella are arranged in the        942         arrangement of microtubules.
49.)            Cyclosis            or also referred to as                         cytoplasmic streaming                         is the flowing of the cytoplasm.
50.)              Pseudopods              eat the bacteria and                phagocytosis                is the process of engulfment with pseudopods.
51.)               Cytokenesis               is the division of the cytoplasm.

PART 12: Cell Membrane

52.) A barrier between the cell and its environment found only in plant cells is called the                 cell membrane                .
53.) The cell membrane is composed of                 phospholipids                 and many types of            proteins           .
54.) The phospholipids are arranged in a           bilayer          .
55.)                          Transmembrane proteins                          regulates the traffic in the cell membrane.

PART 13: Cell Wall

56.) The             cell wall             gives shape and structure to the cell and is only found in plant cells.
57.) The cell wall of plants contain             cellulose            .
58.) The cell wall of bacteria contain                  peptidoglycans                 .
59.) The cell wall of fungi contain          chitin         .

PART 14: Extras

60.)            Antigens            act like ID tags. They identify a cell as your cell.
61.)                                                         Plasma membrane, cystosol, chromosomes, and ribosomes                                                         are found in all cells.
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
What phase is not apart of the interphase?
  1. S phase
  2. G1 phase
  3. G0 phase
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
What is another name for programmed cell death?
  1. necrosis
  2. oxidative burst
  3. diapedesis
  4. apoptosis
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
During                      , vacuoles lose water and cells shrivel.
  1. isotonic conditions
  2. hypotonic conditions
  3. hypertonic conditions
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
Which organelle is found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes?
  1. Cell Wall
  2. Cell Membrane
  3. Nucleolus
  4. Mitochondria
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
Grade 10 Cell Structure and Function
Which of these is NOT included in the fluid mosaic model?
  1. lipids
  2. proteins
  3. membrane flexibility
  4. genetic material
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