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Food science is the study of how food and cooking work.
Without an instant read thermometer to check poaching liquid temperature, you should be able to see a slight convection
current in the liquid but no bubbles should be present.
The ideal temperature for poaching food is between
160-180 degrees F (71-82 degrees C) or well below a simmer .
In order to poach food efficiently, use a pan that suits the
size and shape of the food, so a minimum amount of liquid is used.
A specific type of broth used in poaching is called
court bouillon and is a combination of broth or stock, an acid such as wine , lemon juice or vinegar , a bouquet garni, and a mirepoix .
Poaching requires a
liquid instead of a fat to carry heat into the food, making it a healthy alternative to fried foods.
Liquids used in poaching are
water , broth, or milk .
Fruits are often poached in water or
sweet wine , with the addition of spice.
When food is finished cooking, a
reduction sauce may be made from the poaching liquid by boiling it rapidly until it reaches sauce consistency.
Poaching is a
moist heat cooking method. It is the cooking method requiring the least amount of heat making it a gentle and gradual process.
When poaching eggs,
vinegar is often added to help coagulate the protein that helps hold the egg together.
The names of most varieties of pasta end in the letter i or e.
How many different types of pasta are there?
The flour type most commonly used for a flaky pie crust is
white all-purpose flour. Short pastry is often made with lower protein pastry flour to minimize gluten development.
Pastry dough is different from bread dough, as it is handled
gently to minimize the development of gluten so the dough can be easily shaped and remain tender.
Both pasta and pastry are types of
unleavened doughs. Pasta is made from flour and liquid and is boiled, while pastry is made from flour and fat and is baked.
The basic ingredients in pastry dough, in order of quantity is flour,
fat , water or other liquid, salt , and sometimes sugar for browning and sweetness.
Pastry dough is versatile and may be used for sweet pies or
savoury turnovers or tarts.
To prevent wet fillings from causing pie dough from becoming soggy, pastry is sometimes pre-baked
blind , with a layer of foil or parchment over the dough and weight on top, such as dried beans or pie weights that keep the dough from bubbling up.
A method to limit gluten development in pastry dough, in addition to gentle handling, is to add an
acidic ingredient such as lemon juice, vinegar , buttermilk or sour cream .